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 The Martial Artist

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PostSubject: The Martial Artist   Sun Mar 15, 2009 2:21 pm

Martial arts are systems of codified practices and traditions of training for combat. While they may be studied for various reasons, martial arts share a single objective: to physically defeat other persons and to defend oneself or others from physical threat. In addition, some martial arts are linked to beliefs such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism or Shinto while others follow a particular code of honor. A practitioner of martial arts is referred to as a martial artist. While each style has unique facets that make it different from other martial arts, a common characteristic is the systemization of fighting techniques. Methods of training vary and may include sparring (simulated combat) or formal sets or routines of techniques known as forms or kata. Forms are especially common in the Asian and Asian-derived martial arts.


Martial arts vary widely, and may focus on a specific area or combination of areas, but they can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, grappling, or weapons training. Below is a list of examples that make extensive use of one these areas; it is not an exhaustive list of all arts covering the area, nor are these necessarily the only areas covered by the art but are the focus or best known part as examples of the area:

Striking

* Punching - Boxing (Western), Wing Chun
* Kicking - Capoeira, Savate, Taekwondo, Kickboxing
* Other strikes (Elbows, knees, open-hand) - Muay Thai, Karate, Shaolin Kung Fu

Grappling

* Throwing - Glima, Judo, Jujutsu, Sambo, Shuai jiao
* Joint lock - Aikido, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Hapkido
* Pinning Techniques - Judo, Wrestling

Weaponry

* Traditional Weaponry - Fencing, Gatka, Kendo, Kyūdō, Silambam
* Modern Weaponry - Eskrima, Jogo do Pau, Jukendo, Canne de combat , Shooting sports

Many martial arts, especially those from Asia, also teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices. This is particularly prevalent in traditional Chinese martial arts which may teach bone-setting, qigong, acupuncture, acupressure (tui na), and other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine.
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PostSubject: Fighting Styles   Sun Mar 15, 2009 2:37 pm

Karate, is a martial art developed in the Ryukyu Islands from indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpō. It is primarily a striking art using punching, kicking, knee and elbow strikes and open-handed techniques such as knife-hands and ridge-hands. Grappling, locks, restraints, throws, and vital point strikes are taught in some styles. A karate practitioner is called a karateka.


Jujutsu, literally meaning the "art of softness", or "way of yielding" is a collective name for Japanese martial art styles including unarmed and armed techniques. Jujutsu evolved among the samurai of feudal Japan as a method for defeating an armed and armored opponent without weapons. Due to the ineffectiveness of striking against an armored opponent, the most efficient methods for neutralizing an enemy took the form of pins, joint locks, and throws. These techniques were developed around the principle of using an attacker's energy against him, rather than directly opposing it. There are many variations of the art, which leads to a diversity of approaches. Jujutsu schools (ryū) may utilize all forms of grappling techniques to some degree (i.e. throwing, trapping, joint locks, holds, gouging, biting, disengagements, striking, and kicking).


Ninjutsu, sometimes used interchangeably with the term ninpō, is the martial art, strategy, and tactics of unconventional warfare and guerrilla warfare practiced by the shinobi (commonly known outside of Japan as ninja). A female ninja is called a kunoichi. According to Bujinkan members, the eighteen disciplines (jūhakkei < jūhachi-kei) were first stated in the scrolls of Togakure-ryū. Subsequently they became definitive for all ninjutsu schools by providing total training of the warrior in various fighting arts and disciplines.

Ninja jūhakkei was often studied along with Bugei Jūhappan (the "18 samurai fighting art skills"). Though some are used in the same way by both samurai and ninja, other techniques were used differently by the two groups.

The 18 disciplines are:
1. Seishin-teki kyōkō (spiritual refinement)
2. Taijutsu (unarmed combat, using one's body as the only weapon)
3. Kenjutsu (sword fighting)
4. Bōjutsu (stick and staff fighting)
5. Shurikenjutsu (throwing shuriken)
6. Sōjutsu (spear fighting)
7. Naginatajutsu (naginata fighting)
8. Kusarigamajutsu (kusarigama fighting)
9. Kayakujutsu (pyrotechnics and explosives)
10. Hensōjutsu (disguise and impersonation)
11. Shinobi-iri (stealth and entering methods)
12. Bajutsu (horsemanship)
13. Sui-ren (water training)
14. Bōryaku (tactic)
15. Chōhō (espionage)
16. Intonjutsu (escaping and concealment)
17. Tenmon (meteorology)
18. Chi-mon (geography)
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PostSubject: Re: The Martial Artist   Tue Apr 07, 2009 9:24 pm

Panzer Kunst (German for "armored art") is a martial art for cyborgs. The names of all Panzer Kunst moves and disciplines are in German. Practitioners are called Künstler, from the German word for artist. Panzer Kunst seeks oneness between the senses and is commonly referred to as the strongest of the cyborg martial arts. It is especially effective at disabling and destroying larger opponents. Panzer Kunst is the basis of many space martial arts.


Philosophy
Panzer Kunst was the first fighting style developed to anticipate cyborg combat, and emphasizes combat against both armed opponents, including ranged weapons, as well as zero gravity (and as an extension, fighting in mid-air free fall). Panzer Kunst seems to emphasize speed as well as the use of vibration-based attacks to cause damage to a foe's limbs or internal organs. The art is also quite effective against larger foes. The Panzer Kunst also provides a definite tactical advantage, since it gives its user the ability to analyze an opponent's fighting style and to retaliate accordingly. Therefore, a Künstler will rarely be defeated in a second combat with a given enemy. It appears that smaller schools existed within the overall Panzer Kunst framework. So far, the only style that appears to have survived are the Mauser School which use the Elbogen-Blatt, German for "elbow leaf", which normally consists of a blade mounted on each of the user's forearms, and the Scheider School, which developed the Übergeheimnis, German for "oversecret" (but used in this context the word Über is used more like the Nietzsche term Übermensch, a word from the describing the superhuman), and the combination attack Hertzer Nadel. The only other school mentioned thus far, the Gossen School (German for "gutter"), which developed the Geheimnis Einsatzrhythmen (German for "secret application rhythm"), had already been extinct for 200 years.


Hierarchy
A Künstler (German for "artist") is divided into one of nine ranks:

* Anfänger (Beginner)
* Tzereter (Enthusiast; This is not a German word by any means)
* Lehrling (Apprentice)
* Geselle (Journeyman)
* Krieger (Warrior)
* Höherer Krieger (Higher Warrior)
* Meister (Master)
* Adept (Licensed Master; lit. Adept)
* Altmeister (Elder; lit. Old Master)

Other than these ranks, it is known that the Künstlers are often also divided into gruppes. One such group was the Kammer Gruppe, one of whose number was directly involved in the Cam Ranh Tragedy that led to the fall of Panzer Kunst. The Kammer Gruppe was ostensibly a branch of the Mauser School of Panzer Kunst that functioned as a training unit for armory guards. In reality, however, it was a secret covert ops unit that engaged in sabotage, terrorism, torture, and assassinations.


Training
Training to be a Künstler seems to begin at a young age, as most begin as Anfänger when they are still young children. The actual recruitment process is unknown, although it is known that some Anfänger were war orphans rescued from the battlefield by Künstlers.

The details of the actual training regimen are lost to time, although it is known that training sessions in zero gravity were not uncommon. Künstlers also apparently received training from the leaders of the units in which they belonged to.


Known Techniques
Most of the known techniques of Panzer Kunst.

* Hertza Haeon (also called Hertzer Hauen) – "Heart Hitting" (the German word for heart is 'Herz'). One of Alita's most commonly used moves, the Hertza Haeon is a strike that delivers a high-frequency vibration to the victim, concentrating kinetic energy that when used correctly can be used to destroy or at least disrupt function of the brain or heart. Figure Four can also use a modified form of this move thanks to his anti-cyber martial arts.

* Elbogen-Blatt – "Elbow Leaf". As its name suggests, the Panzer Kunst art of wielding elbow-blades, considered part of the Mauser School.

* Kurz Bombe Kunst – "Short Bomb Art". A Mauser School weapons technique used by some members of the Kammer Gruppe such as Tzykrow der Rabe, although not Yoko, that involves the use of small bomb caps that are placed on vital spots on an opponent and then detonated by a specific method, such as snapping one's fingers. They can be used to cripple an opponent by targeting their vital spots, as well as for assassination and torture.

* Geschoss Schlag (also written Geschoß Schlag) – "Missile Blow". A faster-than-sound punch that adds a sonic boom-effect to the impact, delivering more force to the strike.

* Ausser Stosse (also written Außer Stoße) – "Outer Thrust". By twisting into an attack made by the opponent, the Künstler is able to redirect that energy against them, resulting in a kicking counterattack that is stronger than would normally be launched.

* Seinerweisen – "Personal Wisdom" or "Own Style", though without meaning in German, lit. translation is "his-sages". Individual techniques created by each Künstler that are unique based on their own body's construction, and thus unteachable. While not considered part of Panzer Kunst, there was a tendency to consider Künstlers top-notch only once they had developed a Seinerweisen.


Geheimnis
German for "secret" or "mystery", these moves are considered the "secret techniques" of Panzer Kunst.

* Einzug Rüstungen – "Retract Armors". By attuning their rhythm of movement to the opponent's, the Künstler then strikes when the opponent's guard is weakest.

* Hertzer Nadel – "Heart Needle", lit. "Needle of Hertz". A two-part "Übergeheimnis" combination attack from the Schneider School, also called Hertzer Fahren ("Heart Driving").
o Verschlag – "Shed". The first part of the attack, an initial Hertza Haeon-like strike is first applied in order to set loose a shockwave which bounces around inside the body, increasing in momentum and energy, before finally focusing on the extremities such as the limbs or joints. The opponent might notice this as a slight ringing in their ears. Note that while Hertza Haeon is usually delivered through the heel of the palm, Verschlag is done via the knuckles of the Künstler's fist.
o Hertzer Nadel – The second strike, driving a second Verschlag into the focal point of the shockwave, which causes the pent-up energy to explode from within.

* Einsatzrhythmen – "Rhythms Insertion". A technique associated with the long-dead Gossen School of Panzer Kunst, existing only in books by the time of Grünthal's fall, 200 years prior. By attuning their own chi to that of their opponent's, the Künstler is able to fully nullify the opponent's chi, completely halting any attack they might have launched. Very few Künstlers have ever been able to master this move.


History
It was the first fighting style to anticipate cyborg combat, with Sauer instructing his disciples to handle both armed opponents and zero gravity.


Grünthal
A training academy called Grünthal was established in the Noctis Labyrinthus in the western part of the Valles Marineris in Mars. It was here that Panzer Kunst was developed and taught by five of Sauer's best students in relative secrecy for over a hundred years before the Terraforming Wars.


Use of eye black
Künstlers used a distinctive red eye black when in combat.


Influence
As a result of the secrets of Panzer Kunst being revealed, it helped the formation of later schools of cyborg martial arts including Space Karate as well as Ahat Mastade.


Sechster Angriff
Panzer Kunst is the direct ancestor of Sechster Angriff (German "Sixth Attack"). Sechster Angriff is a very aggressive style of fighting that emphasizes forward motion. However, this means that a practitioner of Sechster Angriff is at a considerable disadvantage when forced to fight in close quarters.


Maschine Klatsch
Maschine Klatsch ("Machine Clap" in German). It is similar to the Panzer Kunst, but is considered weaker because its inherent machine-like movements and its heavy basis around rhythm make it extremely vulnerable to Einzug Rüstungen, although a Maschine Klatsch master can defeat a practitioner of Panzer Kunst with effort.
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